Honey varieties in Greece

Honey is the food which bees collect from plants or from insects’ secretions. Bees carry it
into their hive, enrich it with their own substances and then store it in the combs until it
becomes mature.

Honey contains:
• Glucose about 30.3%
• Fructose about 38.4%
• Minerals
• Organic Acids
• Enzymes and aminoacids
• Metals
• Vitamins B, C
• Polyphenols, Carotenoids, Vioflavonodi
It is the only nourishment that does not expire and is also a medicine for humans. It is said
that Democritus owed his longevity to honey consumption.
We can find many different types of honey and the most important categories are:
- Flower honey and honeydew honey and mixtures of these
-Polyfloral and monofloral honey
The flower honey is produced of the nectar of the flowers. Honeydew honey comes from
insects’ secretions which bees collect from pine and fir trees.

Pine honey
Pine honey is almost 65% of total honey production in Greece. Pine honey is a type of honeydew honey. It is produced by honey bees that collect honeydew (sugary secretions) from a scale insect species, Marchalina hellenica, (known as "Vamvakada", "worker")
which lives on the sap of certain pine species such as Chalepeios and Trachea pines.Main production areas of pine honey is the northern Euboea, Chalkidiki, Thassos,Skopelos, Zakynthos and Rhodes. Marchalina hellenica starts secretion from mid-August in large quantities and finishes next spring time. Bees mostly collect these secretions fro the production of pine honey from August to October.
Taste: Due to the low concentration of sugars is not too sweet.
Aroma: Particular. It is compared to the aroma of iodine.
Colour: The colour of pine honey is typical but darker than the thyme honey. Pine honey produced during the spring time is lighter and more clear than that produced in the autumn.
Crystallisation: Crystallization of pine honey is very slow, since the natural content of glucose is low. Pure pine honey remains fluid for more than one and a half year.
Nutritional value: Pine honey is of high nutritional value which is indicative of the high ash content. It also contains a large amount of different substances. Greek pine honey usually have great content of metals and minerals (calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, copper, etc.).

Fir honey
It is estimated to cover the 5% of the honey produced in Greece. Produced mainly in the mountainous regions of Evritania, Pindos, Olympos, mountains Mainalo, Parnonas Helicon and Xelmo in Peloponnese and Mountain Parnitha in Attiki. Insects such as Cinara confinis and Physokermes hemicryfus, live in fir trees producing honey dew..
Taste: Fir honey is special for its really good taste.
Aroma: Not strong aroma.
Colour: Varies depending on the region of origin. Fir honeyfrom Vytina Arcadia stands out because of the creamy sheen created internally and is called "Vanilla fir." Generally, fir honey has bright colour in some areas and darker in others.
Crystallisation: Its low content of glucose helps it not to crystallize.
Nutritional value: It has high content in minerals (potassium, magnesium, phosphorus,iron, etc.). Contains vitamins in very small quantities, but even this small amount helps in
better absorption of sugars from the human body.

 Chestnut honey
The chestnut tree is widespread throughout the mountainous area Greece. It is considered to be a great bee plant because of the excellent quality of pollen and the highly nutritious
nectar that produces. Moreover, chestnut trees gice honeydew from aphids Myzocallis castanicola, from May until July.
Taste: Strong, slightly bitter. The flavor of chestnut honey is so intense that a small proportion can overweigh the flavor of other honeys.
Aroma: Intense aroma.
Colour: Varies depending on its origin from light dark brown colour and sometimes reddish in the case of honeydew.
Crystallisation: Crystallises in grains after 1-2 years.
Nutritional value: Rich in trace elements. Has sweating properties, promotes the circulation of blood and has astringent and disinfectant properties of the urinary tract.

Citrus fruit honey
Honey from citrus fruits along with honey of other fruits is almost the 25% of Greek honey.Citrus fruits are grown mainly in Epirus, Peloponnese, Crete and islands.
Extremely special taste.
Intense, lovely scent.
Light yellow
Crystallises very quickly, so it recommended to be consumed in a short time.
Nutritional value:
In order to maintain its nutritional value, this type of honey should be consumed in a short period of time and be kept in dark places, away from hightemperatures. 

Thyme honey
The production of thyme honey is around 10% of total production of honey in Greece.Thyme blosom lasts 30 to 40 days depending on the terrain and weather conditions. Thebest areas that produce thyme honey are the Greek islands and especially Crete, Kithiraand Dodecanese.
Thyme honey has a pleasant taste, but sometimes due to high concentration of fructose, leaves a burning sensation in the mouth.
Intensely aromatic honey.
Usually has light amber colour. (Thyme honey from Attica and the Cyclades usually has a lighter colour, while thyme honey form Crete and the Dodecanese has dark orange colour).
This specific honey crystallises in 6-18 months.
Nutritional value:
Thyme honey is considered to have tonic and antiseptic properties and it is recommended for the prevention and fighting of infections of peptic and respiratory diseases. Thyme honey is rich in copper and boron.

Heather honey
  In Greece we can find two types of heather, spring heather and autumn heather, (or sousouro) both are the most important bee plants of the country. The difference between the two types of heather honey is the flavor and the colour.
Taste: The spring heather honey is more palatable than the autumn heather honey but its special characteristic is the typical strong flavor.
Aroma: Characteristic, delicate aroma.
Colour: Autumn heather honey has dark reddish colour and spring heather honey has more light colour.
Crystallisation: Due to high natural content of glucose, heather honey crystallizes very quickly (within about 1-3 months) and therefore it is not suitable for blending with othertypes of honey for the creation of commercial types (blends). Heather honey sours more easily than other types of honey because of its high content of moisture and high amounts of Saccharomyces.
Nutritional value: Heather honey (especially the autumn) is considered to be a very nutritious honey, very tonic, for human body, it contains dozens of natural nutrients,vitamins, enzymes and amino acids, so it is mainly sold in health food stores.